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Paul Bunyan Day

North American folklore is replete with stories of larger-than-life figures, but none of them stands taller than the giant lumberjack Paul Bunyan, who is said to have traveled around the continent with Babe, his big blue ox. Many cities and states across the United States pay tribute to Bunyan, some have put up statues of him, and some also claim him to be their native son. Some areas where Bunyan is prominently featured include Bemidji, Brainerd, and Akeley, in Minnesota; Bangor, Maine; and locations in Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, and California. On Paul Bunyan Day, his legend is not only celebrated in these locations but all around the world.

Throughout history, the story of Paul Bunyan has changed and grown until becoming what it is today. One account says that Bunyan was based on Fabian "Joe" Fournier, a French-Canadian logger who moved to Michigan after the American Civil War. Known as Saginaw Joe, he was strongly built, had giant hands, and was six feet in height. Rumor has it that he also had two sets of teeth. It is believed that he died in 1875 after being hit in the back of the head with a mallet during a fight in Bay City, Michigan. After his death and the trial of his alleged killer, stories about him started turning into tales.

At some point, the story of Fournier combined with that of Bon Jean, a French-Canadian war hero, and the story of Bunyan was further solidified. Bon Jean had played a role in the Papineau Rebellion in Canada in 1837. Bunyan's name also comes from Bon Jean. Stories of Paul Bunyan, which were full of hyperbole and exaggerations, proliferated by word of mouth, being passed from generation to generation in logging communities and amongst lumberjacks in the United States and Canada.

Written stories about Bunyan started appearing in the early twentieth century. One of the first stories to appear in print, titled "Round River," was written by James MacGillivray and was printed in a local newspaper in Oscoda, Michigan, in 1906. Four years later, MacGillivray shared a collection of stories about Bunyan when working at the Detroit News Tribune. Bunyan got his first national print exposure in 1912 when MacGillivray and a poet collaborated to create a poem for Lumberman magazine that was inspired by the lumberjack.

In 1914, William Laughead—a logger and advertising manager of the Red River Lumber Company—depicted Bunyan in his company's advertising pamphlets. This was the first time Bunyan was depicted in illustrations, and they helped to spread his story across the United States. Laughead's illustrations also showcased Babe the blue ox and gave her her name.

There are many legends surrounding Bunyan. It is said that he started the logging profession in the United States and that he hired large men who cleared large forests across the continent with him and Babe. It is said that his and Babe's footprints created Minnesota's 10,000 lakes, that he created the Great Lakes so Babe had a place to drink, that he formed the Grand Canyon by dragging his axe, that he made Mount Hood by piling up stones to extinguish a campfire, that he cleared all of South and North Dakota for farming, and that he was able to eat 50 pancakes a minute. These are all quite impressive feats. Today we celebrate the giant lumberjack behind them.

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